Daily curated COVID-19 literature
WP11 - The objective of this work package is to respond to requests concerning the current scientific knowledge on SARS-CoV-2. Based on the latest scientific literature the team will compile findings and give advice when needed
ACE-2 expression in the small airway epithelia of smokers and COPD patients: implications for COVID-19
Expert Summary: This study investigated if the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have increased expression of ACE-2 in bronchial epithelial cells in the lower respiratory tract. The results show that active cigarette smoking and COPD upregulate ACE-2 expression in the lower airways. This may explain the increased risk of severe COVID-19 in these populations.
Expert Summary: This studyshows that humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 showed an early response of IgA, instead of IgM, in COVID-19 patients. The authors speculate that enhanced serum IgA responses observed in severe COVID-19 might confer damaging effects in severe COVID-19.
Predictors of mortality for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2: a prospective cohort study
Expert Summary: This study investigated predictive factors associated with the death of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Age ⩾65 years, pre-existing concurrent cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases, CD3+CD8+ T-cells ⩽75 cells·μL−1 and cardiac troponin I ⩾0.05 ng·mL−1 were associated with increased risk of deaths. The latter two factors were especially predictors for mortality of COVID-19 pneumonia patients.
Expert Summary: Authors try to uncover the reason why children are less affected by COVID-19 than adults. There come to different possibilities: children have constitutionally elevated ACE2 expression and lymphocyte count, and they undergo several viral infections and scheduled immunizations that could boost their innate and adaptive immunity.
COVID-19: minimising risk to healthcare workers during aerosol producing respiratory therapy using an innovative constant flow canopy.
Expert Summary: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) can be used as the first line of treatment in COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure, postponing and maybe even avoiding the need for intubation and mechanical ventilation. The major inconvenience of using noninvasive respiratory support in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic is the generation of aerosols composed of small virus containing particles that may remain suspended in the air increasing the risk of contracting the virus for health care workers. To reduce or even eliminate...
ACE-2 Expression in the Small Airway Epithelia of Smokers and COPD Patients: Implications for COVID-19
Expert Summary: This article shows that ACE-2, the SARS-Cov2 binding target receptor expressed in epithelial cells, in lower air way is increased in current smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared with non-smokers. They also found that current smokers had higher expression of ACE-2 compared with former smokers. The increased risk and fatality in smokers and COPD patients may be due to increased ACE-2 expression in lower airway