Daily curated COVID-19 literature
WP11 - The objective of this work package is to respond to requests concerning the current scientific knowledge on SARS-CoV-2. Based on the latest scientific literature the team will compile findings and give advice when needed
Expert Summary: The authors performed proteomic and metabolomic profiling of sera from 46 COVID-19 patients, from which 13 were severe, and respective conrols. There were olecular changes in the sera of COVID-19 patients compared to other groups, mainly concerning dysregulation of macrophage, platelet degranulation and complement system pathways. Through the sera, it can also be observed great metabolic suppression.
Potent neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 identified by high-throughput single-cell sequencing of convalescent patients' B cells
Expert Summary: The authors identify 14 SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies using high-throughput single-cell RNA and VDJ sequencing of antigen-enriched B cells from 60 convalescent patients. The most potent antibody has proved strong therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy in hACE2-transgenic mice infected by SARS-CoV-2.
Expert Summary: The authors offer an in-depth analysis of the transcriptional response to SARS-CoV-2 compared with other respiratory viruses. They propose that reduced innate antiviral defenses coupled with exuberant inflammatory cytokine production are the defining and driving features of COVID-19.
Potent neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 identified by high-throughput single-cell sequencing of convalescent patients’ B cells
Expert Summary: The authors report the rapid identification of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies by high-throughput single-cell RNA and VDJ sequencing of antigen-enriched B cells from 60 convalescent patients. One of the neutralizing antibodies also displayed strong therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy in SARS-CoV-2-infected hACE2-transgenic mice.
Targets of T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus in humans with COVID-19 disease and unexposed individuals
Expert Summary: Using HLA class I and II predicted peptide ‘megapools’, circulating SARS-CoV-2−specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells were identified in ∼70% and 100% of COVID-19 convalescent patients, respectively. T cell responses are focused not only on spike but also on M, N and other ORFs. There might be cross-reactive T cell recognition between circulating ‘common cold’ coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2.
Expert Summary: The authors created a computational method that scans unmapped scRNA-seq data for the presence of viral RNA, enabling transcriptional cell sorting of infected versus bystander cells. Applying Viral-Track to Bronchoalveloar-Lavage samples from severe and mild COVID-19 patients reveals a dramatic impact of the virus on the immune system of severe patients compared to mild cases. Coinfection of SARS-Cov-2 and hMPV affects monocytes and dampen interferon response.
Expert Summary: The authors describe the isolation of single-domain antibodies (VHHs) from a llama immunized with prefusion-stabilized coronavirus spikes. These VHHs neutralize MERS-CoV or SARS-CoV-1 S pseudotyped viruses, respectively. A cross-reactivity between the SARS-CoV-1 S-directed VHH and SARS-CoV-2 S was shown and the authors demonstrates that this cross-reactive VHH neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 S pseudotyped viruses as a bivalent human IgG Fc-fusion. These data provide a molecular basis for the neutralization of pathogenic betacoronaviruses by VHHs and suggest that these molecules may serve as useful t...
Expert Summary: The authors perform an in-depth analysis of the transcriptional response to SARS-CoV-2. The team analyzed primary cells, animal models of SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 patients and all revealed an exacerbated inflammatory response. This response is defined by low levels of Type I and III interferons, in contrast to elevated chemokines and high expression of IL-6. In summary, the authors propose that reduced innate antiviral defenses coupled with a heightened inflammatory cytokine production define COVID-19 clinical features.